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Sabah : : Flora
   The giant Rafflesia is the largest flower in the world found in rain forests of Borneo. Early 19th century. From modern Latin, genus name, named for Sir Stamford Raffles, (1781-1826), British colonial administrator in Southeast Asia, who obtained the type specimen.
   The famous Rafflesia, an unusual component of the flora is the parasitic plants which produces a fleshy red flower and has large foul-smelling flowers pollinated by carrion flies. Growing in filamentous form inside the trailing stem and it will appear as small flower buds found on the lower slopes of mountain ranges.
   These buds take an average of 9 months to mature into a cabbage-sized bud. The bud slowly unfurl to reveal the orange to red colour petals covered with lighter spots. A fully opened Rafflesia gives off a foul odour which attracts flies and other insects. The flowering last for four to seven days before the petals blackened.
   The Nepenthes or also known as pitcher plant and are carnivorous. A plant with leaves that are pitcher-shaped to attract, trap, and digest insects. These plants need a lot of water to survive which make the rainforest the best place to live. It can be found in lowland, hill dipterocarp and montane forest, including the slopes of Mount Kinabalu.
Nepenthes Villosa Nepenthes Macfarlanei
Nepenthes Ampullaria
   The plants usually consist of a shallow root system, a prostrate or climbing stem, often several meters long, usually 1 cm or less in diameter, larger in a few species (ex. N. bicalcarata). From the stems are leaf-like expanded petioles, similar to certain Citrus sp., ending in a tendril, which in some species aids in climbing, and at the end of which forms the pitcher, considered the true leaf. The pitcher starts as a small bud and gradually expand to form a globe or tube shaped trap. The trap contains fluid of the plants own production, which may be watery or like syrup and is used to drown the prey. The lower part of the trap contains glands which absorb nutrients from captured prey. Above this is a waxy zone, to prevent escape. Surrounding the entrance to the trap is a structure called a peristome, (the "mouth") which is slippery and often quite colorful, attracting prey but offering a poor footing. Above the peristome is a lid, in many species this keeps rain from diluting the fluid within the pitcher, and the underside of lids (and other parts of the plants) contain nectar glands which attract prey. Plants may contain several different types of pitchers, lower traps which typically sit on the ground usually are larger and more round, hanging pitchers are more funnel-shaped, usually smaller and may be colored differently. Frequently there are intermediates between the two types. In some species (N. rafflesiana) different prey may be attracted by different types of pitchers. Prey consists of insects, only the largests species (N. rajah, merrilliana, etc.) may occasionally catch rats or other vertebrates, and possibly accidentally. Flowers occur in racemes or more rarely panicles with male and female flowers on separate plants. Seed is produced in a three-sided capsule which may contain 10-60 or more seed, consisting of a central ovary and two wings, one on either side. Seeds are wind distributed.
Nepenthes Bicalcarata Nepenthes Sanguinea Nepenthes Lowii
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